Biological Sciences

Office: 1360 Biological Sciences; 313-577-2873
Chairperson: David L. Njus
Associate Chairperson: Edward M. Golenberg
http://clas.wayne.edu/biology


 

ALCEDO, JOY A.: Ph.D., University of Zurich; M.S., Dartmouth University; B.A., College of Saint Rose; Assistant Professor

ANSARI, ATHAR: Ph.D., M.Sc., B.Sc., University of Delhi; Associate Professor

ARKING, ROBERT: Ph.D., Temple University; B.S., Dickinson College; Professor

BENINGO, KAREN A.: Ph.D., University of Michigan; B.S.c, Michigan State University; Associate Professor

CROZIER, MARTIN: Ph.D., University of Windsor; Lecturer

CUNNINGHAM, PHILIP R.: Ph.D., Southern Illinois University; B.A., Murray State University; Associate Professor

DOWLING, THOMAS E.: Ph.D., Wayne State University; B.S., University of Michigan; Professor

FAN, CHUANZHU: Ph.D., North Carolina State University; M.S., Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences; B.S., Northeast Normal University; Assistant Professor

FREEMAN, D. CARL: Ph.D., M.S., Brigham Young University; B.S., University of Utah; Professor

FRIEDRICH, MARKUS: Ph.D., B.S., Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet; Professor

GANGWERE, STANLEY K.: Ph.D., M.S., B.A., University of Michigan; Professor Emeritus

GOLENBERG, EDWARD M.: Ph.D., State University of New York at Stony Brook; B.A., Johns Hopkins University; Professor

GREENBERG, MIRIAM L.: Ph.D., Albert Einstein College of Medicine; M.S., Loyola University; B.A., Reed College; Professor

GU, HAIDONG: Ph.D., Ohio State University; M.S., Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences; B.S., Fudan University; Assistant Professor

HAO, WEILONG: Ph.D., McMaster University; M.S., B.S., Nankai University; Assistant Professor

HARI, V.: Ph.D., M.S., University of Madras; B.S., Annamalai University; Associate Professor Emeritus

HEBERLEIN, GARRETT: Ph.D., M.S., Northwestern University; B.A., Ohio Wesleyan University; Professor Emeritus

HIGGS, PENELOPE I.: Ph.D., B.S., Washington State University; Assistant Professor

KASHIAN, DANIEL M.: Ph.D., University of Wisconsin, Madison; M.S., B.S., University of Michigan; Associate Professor

KASHIAN, DONNA R.: Ph.D., University of Wisconsin; M.S., Michigan State University; B.S., Eastern Michigan University; Associate Professor

MELLER, VICTORIA H.: Ph.D., University of North Carolina-Chapel Hill; B.S., Cornell University; Professor

MIZUKAMI, HIROSHI: Ph.D., University of Illinois; B.A., International Christian University of Tokyo; Professor Emeritus

MOORE, WILLIAM S.: Ph.D., University of Connecticut; B.S., Michigan State University; Professor Emeritus

MYHR, KAREN L.: Ph.D., B.S., University of Michigan; Assistant Professor (Research)

NJUS, DAVID L.: Ph.D., Harvard University; B.S., Massachusetts Institute of Technology; Professor and Chair

PILE, LORI A.: Ph.D., University of Cincinnati; B.Sc., University of Toledo; Associate Professor

POPADIC, ALEKSANDAR: Ph.D., University of Georgia; B.S., University of Belgrade; Professor

SCHRADER, JARED: Ph.D., Northwestern University; B.S., Colorado State University; Assistant Professor

SODJA, ANN: Ph.D., University of California; M.S., Ohio State University; A.B., Ursuline College; Associate Professor

STEINER, CHRISTOPHER: Ph.D., Michigan State University; B.S. University of California-Los Angeles; Associate Professor

THOMAS, ROBERT A.: Ph.D., M.S., Wayne State University; B.S., City University of New York; Lecturer

TUCKER, JAMES D.: Ph.D., Oregon Health Sciences University; B.S., University of California-Davis; Professor Emeritus

TURCHYN, NATALIYA: Ph.D., B.S., Wayne State University; Lecturer

VANBERKUM, MARK: Ph.D., Baylor College of Medicine; M.Sc., B.Sc., University of Toronto; Professor

BIO 5020 Comprehensive Virology Cr. 3

Course provides students with a comprehensive knowledge of molecular virology, from viral classification, vital structures and life cycles, to host response and global health. Offered for undergraduate credit only. Offered Fall.

Prerequisites: ([BIO 2200 with a minimum grade of C-]) AND ([BIO 2600 with a minimum grade of C-]) AND ([BIO 3070 with a minimum grade of C-])

Restriction(s): Enrollment is limited to Undergraduate level students.

Equivalent: BIO 7020

BIO 5040 Biometry Cr. 4

Quantitative methods in biology. Statistical approach to data analysis and the design of experiments. Laboratory section permits actual analysis of selected statistical problems. Offered Irregularly.

Prerequisites: ([BIO 3070 with a minimum grade of C-] OR [BIO 4130 with a minimum grade of C-]) AND ([MAT 1800 with a minimum grade of C-])

Course Material Fees: $15

BIO 5060 Special Topics Cr. 6

Formalized treatment of the current state of knowledge in a significant area of biology. Topics to be announced in Schedule of Classes. Offered for undergraduate credit only. Offered Irregularly.

Prerequisites: ([BIO 1500 with a minimum grade of C-]) AND ([BIO 1510 with a minimum grade of C-])

Restriction(s): Enrollment is limited to Undergraduate level students.

Repeatable for 6 Credits

BIO 5080 Cellular Basis of Animal Behavior Cr. 3

Relationship between behavior and neuroscience using a variety of animal models, each examined from the level of natural behavior progressively to the cellular level. Topics include: sensory systems, motor behavior, and learning. Offered Winter.

Prerequisites: ([BIO 2600 with a minimum grade of C-])

Equivalent: PSY 5080

BIO 5100 Aquatic Ecology Cr. 4

Physical, chemical and biological processes occurring in lakes, streams and wetlands. Offered for undergraduate credit only. Offered Biannually.

Prerequisites: ([BIO 1500 with a minimum grade of C-]) AND ([BIO 3500 with a minimum grade of C-])

Restriction(s): Enrollment is limited to Undergraduate level students.

Course Material Fees: $67

BIO 5150 Genomics Cr. 3

Introduction to the theory and practice of genomics. Topics include sequencing and mapping, overview of genomes, comparative genomics, transcriptomes, population genetics and genomics, basic bioinformatics and statistics, population-level variation (SNPs, MNPs, indels), ethics, evolutionary genomics, and functional genomics. Offered for undergraduate credit only. Offered Fall.

Prerequisites: ([BIO 3070 with a minimum grade of C-]) AND ([BIO 3100 with a minimum grade of C-])

Restriction(s): Enrollment is limited to Undergraduate level students.

BIO 5180 Field Investigations in Biological Sciences Cr. 12

Field studies of one to fifteen weeks, emphasizing biological principles and techniques demonstrated in the field. Offered Irregularly.

Prerequisites: ([BIO 2200 with a minimum grade of C-] OR [BIO 2600 with a minimum grade of C-]) AND ([BIO 1500 with a minimum grade of C-]) AND ([BIO 1510 with a minimum grade of C-])

Course Material Fees: $10

Repeatable for 20 Credits

BIO 5240 Molecular Systems Biology Cr. 3

Introduces the basic design principles of biological circuits and networks and their functional designs at the molecular, pathway, whole cell, and population levels. Students will perform a comprehensive group project to build a computational model of a simple biological network. Offered Biannually.

Prerequisites: ([BIO 3070 and PHY 2140])

BIO 5280 Bioinformatics Cr. 3

Basic Linux commands and PERL programming skills, sequence comparison, phylogenetic analysis, gene/genome patterns. Offered for undergraduate credit only. Offered Winter.

Prerequisites: ([BIO 3070 with a minimum grade of C-]) AND ([BIO 3100 with a minimum grade of C-])

Restriction(s): Enrollment is limited to Undergraduate level students.

BIO 5330 Principles and Applications of Biotechnology I Cr. 3

Review of origins of molecular biotechnology and its characteristic technologies; survey of applications of biotechnology to problems in industries. Offered Fall.

Prerequisites: ([BIO 2200 with a minimum grade of C-]) AND ([BIO 3070 with a minimum grade of C-]) AND ([BIO 3100 with a minimum grade of C-])

BIO 5440 Terrestrial Ecology Cr. 4

Ecology of forests and grasslands. Field study and interpretation of ecological processes. Importance of species-site relationships and disturbance history. Offered for undergraduate credit only. Offered Biannually.

Prerequisites: ([BIO 1500 with a minimum grade of C-]) AND ([BIO 4130 with a minimum grade of C-])

Restriction(s): Enrollment is limited to Undergraduate level students.

Course Material Fees: $110

Equivalent: BIO 7440

BIO 5490 Population and Community Ecology Cr. 3

Population dynamics of animals and plants. Life history theory. Species interactions. Structure and dynamics of communities. Offered for undergraduate credit only. Offered Biannually.

Prerequisites: ([BIO 1500 with a minimum grade of C-]) AND ([BIO 4130 with a minimum grade of C-])

Restriction(s): Enrollment is limited to Undergraduate level students.

Equivalent: BIO 7490

BIO 5540 Ecosystem and Landscape Ecology Cr. 3

Ecosystem productivity. Carbon dynamics and nutrient cycling in ecosystems. Causes of ecological pattern on landscapes. Interrelationships of ecological pattern and process. Offered for undergraduate credit only. Offered Biannually.

Restriction(s): Enrollment is limited to Undergraduate level students.

Equivalent: BIO 7540

BIO 5610 Structural Embryology Cr. 1

Slides, models, and 4-D computer programs used to enable the student to know and recognize the cascade of structural changes that take place during the embryological developmental pathways. Offered Winter.

Prerequisites: (May be taken concurrently: [BIO 5620 with a minimum grade of C-])

Course Material Fees: $20

BIO 5620 Developmental Biology Cr. 3

An analytical and comparative study of genetic and cellular mechanisms and their interaction with environmental factors to effect the developmental mechanisms which produce the adult organism. Origin and unfolding of structural patterns characteristic of different species; their evolutionary origins. Offered Winter.

Prerequisites: ([BIO 3070 with a minimum grade of C-])

BIO 5640 Cancer Biology Cr. 3

Introduction to integrated analysis of cancer and cell biology, pathology, etiology and therapy. Offered Irregularly.

Prerequisites: ([BIO 2600 with a minimum grade of C-]) AND ([BIO 3070 with a minimum grade of C-]) AND ([BIO 3100 with a minimum grade of C-])

BIO 5680 Basic Endocrinology Cr. 3

Basic description of the human endocrine system, the endocrine control of several physiologic processes (growth, development, metabolism and reproduction), and a description of common endocrine disorders. Offered Fall.

Prerequisites: ([BIO 3200 with a minimum grade of C-] OR [BIO 4120 with a minimum grade of C-])

Equivalent: PSL 5680

BIO 5750 Biology of Aging Cr. 3

Aging and senescence viewed as fundamental biological processes common to most organisms. Empirically-based discussion of investigative methods and accepted facts regarding aging, coupled with critical discussion of behavioral and biological interventions believed to retard or reverse the aging process; critical analysis of theoretical interpretations of this data. Offered for undergraduate credit only. Offered Winter.

Prerequisites: ([BIO 3070 with a minimum grade of C-])

Restriction(s): Enrollment is limited to Undergraduate level students.

BIO 5996 Senior Research Cr. 1-2

Original research. To be taken under direction of Biological Sciences faculty. Offered for undergraduate credit only. Offered Every Term.

Restriction(s): Enrollment limited to students with a class of Senior; enrollment is limited to Undergraduate level students.

Repeatable for 3 Credits

BIO 6000 Molecular Cell Biology I Cr. 3

Analysis of cell structure at the molecular and cellular levels and the physiological consequences of these structures: isolation, physico-chemical properties, and biological attributes of cells, organelles, and biopolymers including nucleic acids, proteins, and lipids. Offered Fall.

Prerequisite: BIO 2600 (may be taken concurrently) with a minimum grade of C and BIO 3100 (may be taken concurrently) with a minimum grade of C

BIO 6010 Molecular Cell Biology II Cr. 3

Analysis of cell regulation at the molecular level. Cell development and differentiation. Genetic mechanisms including: DNA synthesis and repair, mechanism of gene expression and control. Offered Winter.

Prerequisite: BIO 6000 with a minimum grade of C-

BIO 6020 Methods of Analyses Cr. 4

Design and execution of experiments in molecular biology. Topics include: laboratory safety, scientific documentation, database searching, development of experimental protocols, error analysis, solutions and buffers, electrophoretic separation of proteins and nucleic acids, basic immunohistochemistry, bioimaging, and scientific ethics. Offered Fall.

Prerequisites: (May be taken concurrently: [BIO 4110 with a minimum grade of C-] OR [BIO 5330 with a minimum grade of C-])

Course Material Fees: $50

BIO 6055 Biology of the Eye Cr. 3

Introduction to biology of eye structure/function, and to causes and clinical treatments of eye-related disorders and diseases. Offered for undergraduate credit only. Offered Fall.

Prerequisite: BIO 2600 with a minimum grade of C- and BIO 3100 with a minimum grade of C-

Restriction(s): Enrollment is limited to Undergraduate level students.

Course Material Fees: $25

Equivalent: ANA 6050, PYC 6050

BIO 6060 Molecular Evolution Cr. 3

Patterns and processes of evolutionary change on the DNA sequence level. Emphasis on models of nucleotide substitutions, and genic evolution. Methods of phylogenetic inference. Offered Irregularly.

Prerequisite: BIO 3070 with a minimum grade of C- and (BIO 4200 (may be taken concurrently) with a minimum grade of C-

BIO 6070 Human Genetics Cr. 3

Principles of genetics as applied to humans. Topics include pedigree analysis, simple and complex inheritance patterns, cytogenetics, development and sex determination, role of mutations in disease, genes and cancer, genetic testing and forensics, genomics, linkage, genetics of behavior, and human evolution. Offered Irregularly.

Prerequisite: BIO 3070 with a minimum grade of C-

BIO 6090 Population Genetics Cr. 3

Theoretical bases for microevolutionary change in natural populations of organisms; basic to study of evolutionary genetics and evolutionary ecology. Offered Irregularly.

Prerequisite: BIO 3070 with a minimum grade of C-

BIO 6120 Molecular Biology Laboratory I Cr. 3

Laboratory exercises illustrate methods and concepts of molecular biology and recombinant DNA analysis. Offered Winter.

Course Material Fees: $30

BIO 6160 Proteins and Proteomics Cr. 3

Structure and dynamics of proteins at the molecular level. Strategies used to biochemically purify, analyze, and characterize proteins. Offered Winter.

Prerequisite: BIO 3100 with a minimum grade of C- or CHM 5600 with a minimum grade of C- or CHM 6620 with a minimum grade of C-

BIO 6180 Membrane Biology Cr. 3

Comprehensive analysis of cellular and model membranes integrating molecular structure and physiological properties. Structural, dynamic, and physiological properties examined, including molecular and macromolecular assemblies, physical and chemical analysis of molecular motion, functional aspects including trans-membrane signaling. Offered Irregularly.

Prerequisite: BIO 6000 with a minimum grade of C

Restriction(s): Enrollment is limited to Undergraduate level students.

BIO 6190 Advanced Special Topics Cr. 6

Formalized treatment of current state of knowledge in a significant area of biology. Topics to be announced in Schedule of Classes. Offered Irregularly.

Repeatable for 6 Credits

BIO 6330 Principles and Applications of Biotechnology II Cr. 3

Application of molecular biology and recombinant DNA technology of contemporary eukaryotic systems. Topics include: specialized application of PCR for cloning, generation of antibodies, the expression of recombinant proteins in cultured cells and transgenic animal models. Offered Winter.

Prerequisite: BIO 5330 with a minimum grade of C-

BIO 6620 Advanced Evolution Cr. 3

Continuation of BIO 4130; emphasis on evolutionary biology. Topics include: history of evolutionary thought, origins of life, evolution of the cell, evolution of genes, evolution and behavior, evolution of life history traits, phylogenetics, historical biogeography, tempo and mode of evolution, species concepts and speciation, nature of adaptation and adaptive radiations. Offered Irregularly.

Prerequisite: BIO 4200 with a minimum grade of C-

BIO 6690 Neurobiology I Cr. 3

Electrical and chemical signal transmission and signal processing in the nervous system. Integration of these functions into complex sensory and control mechanisms. Molecular mechanisms of electrical excitability and ion channels, neurotransmitters and receptors, second messengers, and feedback circuits. Neurobiology of motor control, sensory and regulatory systems. Offered Winter.

Prerequisite: BIO 3100 with a minimum grade of C- and (BIO 4120 (may be taken concurrently) with a minimum grade of C-

BIO 6990 Honors Directed Study in Biology Cr. 1-4

To be taken under direction of Biological Sciences faculty. Offered for undergraduate credit only Offered Every Term.

Restriction(s): Enrollment is limited to students with a major in Biological Sciences Honors or Biological Sciences; enrollment is limited to Undergraduate level students; enrollment limited to students in a BS in Biological Science or Bachelor of Arts degrees.

Repeatable for 99 Credits

BIO 6994 Technical Communication in Molecular Biotechnology Cr. 3

Methods of written and oral communication in the biotechnology field. Offered Winter.

BIO 6999 Terminal Essay: Honors Program Cr. 2

Preparation of a terminal essay, satisfactory completion of which assures Honors graduation, providing performance in preceding Honors courses has been at Honors level; to be taken under direction of Biological Sciences faculty. Offered for undergraduate credit only. Offered Every Term.

Prerequisite: BIO 6990 with a minimum grade of C-

Restriction(s): Enrollment is limited to students with a major in Biological Sciences Honors; enrollment is limited to Undergraduate level students.

BIO 7000 Recent Advances in Cellular and Developmental Biology Cr. 3

Formalized and in-depth treatment of the current state of knowledge in a significant area of cell and molecular biology. Topics to be announced in Schedule of Classes . Offered Irregularly.

Restriction(s): Enrollment is limited to Graduate level students.

Repeatable for 6 Credits

BIO 7011 Principles of Toxicology Cr. 3

Basic concepts and principles of toxicology, including toxicity of major classes of chemicals (pesticides, solvents, metals) and organ systems (renal, immune, digestive, neuro and respiratory) affected. Offered Fall.

Restriction(s): Enrollment is limited to Graduate level students.

Equivalent: PHC 7410

BIO 7020 Comprehensive Virology Cr. 3

Course provides students with a comprehensive knowledge of molecular virology, from viral classification, vital structures and life cycles, to host response and global health. Offered Fall.

Restriction(s): Enrollment is limited to Graduate level students.

BIO 7040 Signaling Transduction Mechanisms Cr. 3

Overview of signaling strategies and mechanisms used by prokaryotes and eukaryotes (including plants) to sense and respond to extracellular or intracellular stimuli. Additional study of bioinformatic, biochemical, and genetics approaches to characterization of signaling proteins, systems and networks. Offered Fall.

Restriction(s): Enrollment is limited to Graduate level students.

BIO 7055 Biology of the Eye Cr. 3

Integrated introduction to basic biological structure/function of the eye; causes and clinical treatments of eye-related disorders and diseases. Offered Fall.

Prerequisite: BIO 2600 with a minimum grade of C- and BIO 3100 with a minimum grade of C-

Restriction(s): Enrollment is limited to Graduate level students.

Equivalent: ANA 7055

BIO 7060 Evolutionary and Developmental Biology Cr. 3

Introduction to animal diversity. Genetic pathways and networks in development; focus on limb and organ formation. Evolving developmental pathways: case studies. Genetic source materials for developmental evolution. Speciation and developmental evolution. Offered Biannually.

Prerequisite: BIO 5620 with a minimum grade of C-

Restriction(s): Enrollment is limited to Graduate level students.

BIO 7090 Molecular Genetics of Development Cr. 3

An examination of the current and classical research literature dealing with the role of gene action in development. Offered Irregularly.

Prerequisite: BIO 5620 with a minimum grade of C-

Restriction(s): Enrollment is limited to Graduate level students.

BIO 7110 Aquatic Ecology Cr. 4

Physical, chemical and biological processes occurring in lakes, streams, and wetlands. Offered Biannually (Fall).

Restriction(s): Enrollment is limited to Graduate level students.

Course Material Fees: $67

Equivalent: BIO 5100

BIO 7150 Genomics Cr. 3

Introduction to the theory and practice of genomics. Topics include sequencing and mapping, overview of genomes, comparative genomics, transcriptomes, population genetics and genomics, basic bioinformatics and statistics, population-level variation (SNPs, MNPs, indels), ethics, evolutionary genomics, and functional genomics. Offered Fall.

Restriction(s): Enrollment is limited to Graduate level students.

Equivalent: BIO 5150

BIO 7180 Membrane Biology Cr. 3

Comprehensive analysis of cellular and model membranes integrating molecular structure and physiological properties. Structural, dynamic, and physiological properties examined, including molecular and macromolecular assemblies, physical and chemical analysis of molecular motion, functional aspects including trans-membrane signaling. Offered Winter.

Restriction(s): Enrollment is limited to Graduate level students.

BIO 7240 Molecular Systems Biology Cr. 3

Introduces the basic design principles of biological circuits and networks and their functional designs at the molecular, pathway, whole cell, and population levels. Students will perform a comprehensive group project to build a computational model of a simple biological network. Offered Biannually.

Prerequisites: ([BIO 3070 and PHY 2140])

Restriction(s): Enrollment is limited to Graduate level students.

BIO 7280 Bioinformatics Cr. 3

Basic Linux commands and PERL programming skills, sequence comparison, phylogenetic analysis, gene/genome patterns. Offered Winter.

Restriction(s): Enrollment is limited to Graduate level students.

BIO 7440 Terrestrial Ecology Cr. 4

Ecology of forests and grasslands. Field study and interpretation of ecological processes. Importance of species-site relationships and disturbance history. Offered Biannually.

Prerequisite: BIO 1500 with a minimum grade of C- and BIO 4130 with a minimum grade of C-

Restriction(s): Enrollment is limited to Graduate level students.

Course Material Fees: $110

BIO 7490 Population and Community Ecology Cr. 3

Population dynamics of animals and plants. Life history theory. Species interactions. Structure and dynamics of communities. Offered Biannually.

Prerequisite: BIO 1500 with a minimum grade of C- and BIO 4130 with a minimum grade of C-

Restriction(s): Enrollment is limited to Graduate level students.

Equivalent: BIO 5490

BIO 7500 Prokaryotic Gene Structure and Function Cr. 4

Detailed analysis of structure, expression and replication off genes of prokaryotic cells and associated extrachromosomal elements. Critical discussion of studies establishing central concepts in prokaryotic gene regulation, DNA structure and dynamics transcription, translation and signal transduction systems. Offered Biannually.

Prerequisite: BIO 3070 with a minimum grade of C- and BIO 3100 with a minimum grade of C-

Restriction(s): Enrollment is limited to Graduate level students.

BIO 7510 Eukaryotic Gene Structure and Function Cr. 4

Knowledge of current molecular technology is absolute prerequisite for this course; prerequisite course must have been satisfied. Analysis of structure, replication, expression and regulation of eukaryotic genome. Experimental approaches to study eukaryotic gene expression, critical comprehension of current research, design of experiments in gene expression. Offered Biannually.

Prerequisite: BIO 6330 with a minimum grade of C- or BIO 7780 with a minimum grade of C

Restriction(s): Enrollment is limited to Graduate level students.

BIO 7540 Ecosystem and Landscape Ecology Cr. 3

Ecosystem productivity. Carbon dynamics and nutrient cycling in ecosystems. Causes of ecological pattern on landscapes. Interrelationships of ecological pattern and process. Offered Biannually.

Prerequisite: BIO 1500 with a minimum grade of C- and BIO 4130 with a minimum grade of C-

Restriction(s): Enrollment is limited to Graduate level students.

Equivalent: BIO 5540

BIO 7660 Neurobiology II Cr. 3

Advanced topics; emphasis on neurodevelopment using model systems, and possible molecular mechanism; models of higher order functions: learning, memory behavior, cognition; human disease and recent genetic characterization. Offered Biannually (Fall).

Prerequisite: BIO 6690 with a minimum grade of C

Restriction(s): Enrollment is limited to Graduate level students.

BIO 7750 Biology of Aging Cr. 3

Aging and senescence viewed as fundamental biological processes common to most organisms. Discussion of investigative methods and accepted facts regarding aging; critical analysis of theoretical interpretation of the data. Offered Winter.

Prerequisite: BIO 3070 with a minimum grade of C-

Restriction(s): Enrollment is limited to Graduate level students.

BIO 7780 Genetic Engineering Laboratory Cr. 2

Continuation of BIO 6120 laboratory experience; screening procedures and DNA sequencing methods. Offered Irregularly.

Prerequisite: BIO 6120 with a minimum grade of C and BIO 6330 with a minimum grade of C

Restriction(s): Enrollment is limited to Graduate level students.

Course Material Fees: $30

BIO 7996 Research Problems Cr. 1-8

Original investigation. Offered Every Term.

Restriction(s): Enrollment is limited to Graduate level students.

Repeatable for 998.99 Credits

BIO 8000 Special Topics Cr. 1-6

Various frontier aspects of biology. Work may include lectures, laboratories or discussion. Topics to be announced in Schedule of Classes. Offered Yearly.

Restriction(s): Enrollment is limited to Graduate level students.

Repeatable for 6 Credits

BIO 8995 Graduate Seminar in Biology Cr. 2

Presentations by graduate staff, advanced students, visiting lecturers. Offered Yearly.

Restriction(s): Enrollment is limited to students with a major in Biological Sciences; enrollment is limited to Graduate level students; enrollment limited to students in a Doctor of Philosophy or Master of Science degrees.

Repeatable for 4 Credits

BIO 8996 Research in Molecular Biotechnology Cr. 1-4

Students spend two semesters doing research under the guidance of faculty associated with the Molecular Biotechnology Program and in other laboratories. Offered Winter, Spring/Summer.

Restriction(s): Enrollment is limited to Graduate level students.

Repeatable for 8 Credits

BIO 8999 Master's Thesis Research and Direction Cr. 1-8

Offered Every Term.

Restriction(s): Enrollment limited to students with a class of Candidate Masters; enrollment is limited to Graduate level students.

Repeatable for 8 Credits

BIO 9990 Pre-Doctoral Candidacy Research Cr. 1-8

Research in preparation for doctoral dissertation. Offered Every Term.

Restriction(s): Enrollment is limited to Graduate level students.

Repeatable for 12 Credits

BIO 9991 Doctoral Candidate Status I: Dissertation Research and Direction Cr. 7.5

Offered Every Term.

Restriction(s): Enrollment is limited to Graduate level students.

BIO 9992 Doctoral Candidate Status II: Dissertation Research and Direction Cr. 7.5

Offered Every Term.

Prerequisite: BIO 9991 with a minimum grade of S

Restriction(s): Enrollment is limited to Graduate level students.

BIO 9993 Doctoral Candidate Status III: Dissertation Research and Direction Cr. 7.5

Offered Every Term.

Prerequisite: BIO 9992 with a minimum grade of S

Restriction(s): Enrollment is limited to Graduate level students.

BIO 9994 Doctoral Candidate Status IV: Dissertation Research and Direction Cr. 7.5

Offered Every Term.

Prerequisite: BIO 9993 with a minimum grade of S

Restriction(s): Enrollment is limited to Graduate level students.

BIO 9995 Candidate Maintenance Status: Doctoral Dissertation Research and Direction Cr. 0

Offered Every Term.

Restriction(s): Enrollment is limited to Graduate level students.

Course Material Fees: $348.67

Repeatable for 0 Credits

BIO 9996 Lab Rotation Cr. 2

Research training in faculty laboratories on a rotating basis, up to two labs per semester. Offered Every Term.

Restriction(s): Enrollment is limited to Graduate level students.

Repeatable for 4 Credits

BIO 9999 Doct Diss Rsch&Dir Cr. 1-16

Offered Every Term.

Restriction(s): Enrollment limited to students with a class of Doctoral Candidate; enrollment is limited to Graduate level students.